E-Government in Bangladesh: Development and Present State
Tanveer Ahmad
Associate Professor, Dept of Mass Communication and Journalism University of Rajshahi,Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh

Google Scholar Download Pdf

The application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) by the government to deliver various services to the public, to ensure citizens’ better access to public information, to simplify and ameliorate the process of governance refers as e-Government. Developing countries taking inspiration from developed nations’ success in streamlining governance through e-Government, trying to adapt and replicate initiatives. Bangladesh ranks high among these aspiring nations. Nonetheless, there are hordes of predicaments that impede the effective execution of e-government in Bangladesh. This article relied on archival analysis of relevant laws, policy documents and academic papers on the issue and drawn conclusions based on these. It presented the concept of e-Government; discussed benefits to gain, barriers to face and probable road ahead for developing countries with special focus on Bangladesh. From the appraisal of existing programmes it is detected that e–Government holds many prospects for Bangladesh. If implemented properly it will enhance competence, increase transparency and will augment socio-economic development.


e-Governance, e-Government, ICT, Public Administration, Developing Countries, Bangladesh


1) Access to Information Programme , 2011, Strategic Priorities of Digital Bangladesh, Dhaka: Prime Minister’s Office.

2) Access to Information Programme, 2014, e-Tathyakosh: Enhancing Access to Livelihood Information, Dhaka: Prime Minister’s Office.

3) Access to Information Programme, 2016, A TCV + Study on National Portal Service, Dhaka: Prime Minister’s Office.

4) Access to Information Programme, 2018, Union Digital Centres: Reaching the Unreached through an Innovative Public Private Entrepreneurship Model, Dhaka: Prime Minister’s Office.

5) Access to Information Programme, 2018a, A TCV+ Satisfaction Survey on ‘Land e-Porcha’ Service from UDC: An Impact Analysis, Dhaka: Prime Minister’s Office.

6) Access to Information Programme, 2019, Honorable ICT Affairs Adviser to HPM Launched ekSheba, ekPay and ekShop Retrieved from

7) Access to Information Programme, 2020, Retrieved from

8) Access to Information Programme, 2020a, Accelerating G2P Payment Digitization: Lessons from the Field, Dhaka: Prime Minister’s Office.

9) Baum, C. & Maio, A. D., 2000, What Is E-Government? Gartner's Definitions Retrieved from

10) Baum, C. & Maio, A. D., 2000, Gartner’s four Phases of e-Government Model, Stamford: Gartner Group Inc.

11) Carter, L. & Belanger F., 2005, The Utilization of E-government Services: Citizen Trust, Innovation and Acceptance Factors, Information Systems Journal, 15:1, 5-25.

12) Center for Policy Dialogue, 2007, Bangladesh Vision 2021: Preparing under the Initiative of Nagorik Committee 2006, Dhaka: Center for Policy Dialogue, vii- viii.

13) Chen, Y. N., Chen, H. M., Huang, W., & Ching, R. K., 2006, E-Government Strategies in Developed and Developing Countries: An Implementation Framework and Case Study, Journal of Global Information Management, 14:1, 23-46.

14) Chowdhury, M. H. and Satter, A.K.M. Z., 2013, Citizen Perspective E-Governance Model for Developing Countries: Bangladesh Context, American Journal of Modeling and Optimization. 2013, 1:3, 43-46.

15) Cook, M. E., LaVigne, M. F., Pagano, C. M., Dawes, S. S., & Pardo, T. A., 2002, Making a Case for Local E-Government, Albany, NY: University at Albany, State University of New York.

16) European Commission, 2016, Glossary: E-government Retrieved from index.php?title=Glossary:E-government

17) Heeks, R., 2003, Most eGovernment for Development Projects Fail: How Can Risks Be Reduced, Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management.

18) Hiller, J. & Belanger, F., 2002, Privacy Strategies for Electronic Government, in Abramson, M.A. & Means, G.E. (Eds.) E-Government 2001, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing, Inc.,162–198.

19) Hoque, M.R., Mazmum, M.F.A. and Bao, Y., 2014, e-Health in Bangladesh: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Direction, The International Technology Management Review, 4:2, 87-96.

20) Huawei, 2019, Powering Intelligent Connectivity with Global Collaboration: Mapping your transformation into a digital economy with GCI 2019, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd

21) infoDev/ World Bank (2009) e-Government Primer, Washington, DC: infoDev/World Bank

22) OECD, 2003, The e-Government Imperative. Paris: OECD e-Government Studies, p23.

23) Jin-Wan, S. & Hasan, M. G. M., 2015, Where are E-governments in South Asian Countries? A Comparative Approach, South Asian Studies, 30:2, 7-24.

24) Joia, L.A., 2006, Building Government to Government Enterprises in Khoshrow-Pour, M. ed. Encyclopedia of ECommerce, E-Government, and Mobile Commerce, Hershey & London: Idea Group Reference, 72-77.

25) Kaufmann, D. and Kraay, A., 2019, Worldwide Governance Indicators, Retrieved from:

26) Korea International Cooperation Agency, 2018, e-Government Master Plan for Digital Bangladesh, Dhaka: Bangladesh Computer Council.

27) Layne, K. and Lee, J., 2001, Developing Fully Functional E-government: A Four Stage Model, Government Information Quarterly, 18:2, 122–136.

28) Liton, S. and Habib, M.A., 2015, Analyzing Challenges and Opportunities of the Implementation of E-Government in Bangladesh, Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology: G Interdisciplinary, 15:1 Version 1.0, 21-28.

29) Mittal, Dr. P. & Kaur, A., 2013, E-Governance - A Challenge for India, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET), 2:3, 1196-1199

30) OECD, 2003, The e-Government Imperative. Paris: OECD e-Government Studies, p23.

31) Office of the Registrar General, Birth & Death Registration (2000) Welcome to Office of the Registrar General, Birth & Death Registration Retrieved from

32) Okot-Uma, R. W., 2004, Electronic Governance: A Conceptual Framework, in Commonwealth Public Administration Reform 2004, London: The Stationery Office, 283–286.

33) Portulans Institute, 2019, Network Readiness Index 2019: Towards a Future-Ready Society, Washington D.C.: Portulans Institute & The World Information Technology and Services Alliance.

34) Prattipati, S., 2003, Adoption of e-Governance: Differences Between Countries in the Use of Online Government Services, Journal of American Academy of Business, 3: 1/2, 386–401.

35) Scholl, H. J., 2017, E-Government in Oxford Bibliographies, Retrieved from

36) Schuppan, T. (2009) E-Government in Developing Countries: Experiences from Sub-Saharan Africa, Government Information Quarterly, 26:1, 118–127.

37) Siddiquee, N. A., 2013, e-Government in Bangladesh: The Dawn of Citizen-Centric Public Administration? In Sabharwal, M. & Berman, E. M. eds. Public Administration in South Asia: India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, New York: Taylor and Francis, 317-335.

38) The World Bank, 2016, New Trade Portal makes it Easier to do Business in Bangladesh, March 17, Retrieved from

39) UNDESA, 2008, United Nations e-Government Survey 2008: From e-Government to Connected Governance, New York: United Nations.

40) UNDESA, 2016, United Nations E-Government Survey 2016: E-Government in Support of Sustainable Development, New York: United Nations.

41) UNDESA, 2018, United Nations E-Government Survey 2018: Gearing E-Government to Support Transformation towards Sustainable and Resilient Societies, New York: United Nations.

42) Webster, J. & Watson, R. T., 2002, Analyzing the Past to Prepare for the Future: Writing a Literature Review, MIS Quarterly, 26: 2, xiii-xxiii.

43) World Economic Forum, 2019, Global Competitiveness Report 2019, Cologny/Geneva: World Economic Forum.

44) World Justice Project, 2020, World Justice Project Rule of Law Index 2020, Washington, DC: World Justice Project.


Latest Article and Current Issue


By 1Rahmadya Putra Nugraha, 2Nor Fauziana Ibrahim,3 Tai Hen Toong

Indexed In

Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar