Emerging Pillars for IWRM Implementation In Bangladesh
Ubaydur Rahaman Siddiki
Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Environment, Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh
DOI : https://doi.org/10.47191/ijsshr/v4-i10-10

Google Scholar Download Pdf

Since the early 1990s, the IWRM approach has been performing for improving the water sector through minimising the water crisis in Bangladesh. Therefore, Bangladesh has developed three pillars (e.g., enabling environment, institutional arrangement, management instruments, etc.) favouring IWRM to meet the desired goal. Despite the ability to adequately address the cross-cutting and multiple issues of the water sector of Bangladesh, the IWRM approach is getting more complex day by day because the steps taken under the pillars may not work correctly. Given above, an attempt has been made to analyse how the existing contradictions in IWRM pillars (designed by Bangladesh) affect IWRM effectiveness. Using document analysis and semi-structured interviews, this paper provides an understanding of existing inconsistencies of IWRM pillars and the necessity of enhancing IWRM pillars for increasing IWRM implementation effectiveness in Bangladesh. The implementation challenges of the policy networks (policy, plan, strategy etc.) and implementation networks (water projects) made to ensure enabling environment affect IWRM effectiveness. Institutional power and responsibility are not defined in the policy rules and regulations correctly, causing problems in the institutional arrangement, which has affected IWRM effectiveness. Database related issues about the management instruments are also responsible in this regard. Necessary strategies and measures as per network management are recommended to enhance IWRM tools by resolving irregularities and improving IWRM effectiveness in Bangladesh.


IWRM, Enabling Environment, Institutional Arrangement, Management Instruments, NWPo, Water Act, Network Management


1) Alam, M. M. (2014). An Evaluation of Water Resources Planning Organization, an Apex Planning Organization in Water Sector Bangladesh. Asian Journal Of Applied Science And Engineering, 3(2), 66-83.

2) Alam, M. M., & Quevauviller, P. (2014). An Evaluation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Activities in Bangladesh [Journal]. Asia Pacific Journal of Energy and Environment, 1(1), 22-38. https://doi.org/10.15590/apjee/2014/v1i1/53743

3) Albert, X. (2001). Integrated water resources management in a water abundance-scarcity cycle regime, a case study of Bangladesh Thesis No. WM-00-11, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand].

4) Bandaragoda, D. J., & Babel, M. S. (2010). Institutional development for IWRM: An international perspective [Article]. International Journal of River Basin Management, 8(3-4), 215-224. https://doi.org/10.1080/15715124.2010.496707

5) Barua, S., & Van Ast, J. A. (2011). Towards interactive flood management in Dhaka, Bangladesh [Article]. Water Policy, 13(5), 693-716. https://doi.org/10.2166/wp.2011.020

6) Biswas, A. K. (2004). Integrated water resources management: A reassessment [Review]. Water International, 29(2), 248-256. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-3042620540&partnerID=40&md5=00bbd868d110f75947c6dac48282d4fe

7) Biswas, A. K. (2008). Current directions: Integrated water resources management - a second look [Article]. Water International, 33(3), 274-278. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060802272812

8) Biswas, A. K., Varis, O., & Tortajada, C. (2005). Integrated water resources management in South and South-East Asia. Oxford University Press.

9) Chan, N. W., Roy, R., & Chaffin, B. C. (2016). Water governance in bangladesh: An evaluation of institutional and political context. Water, 8(9), 403.

10) Dare, M., & Daniell, K. A. (2017). Australian water governance in the global context: understanding the benefits of localism. Policy Studies, 38(5), 462-481. https://doi.org/10.1080/01442872.2016.1188908

11) Dare, M., & Lukasiewicz, A. (2019). Are Environmental Water Advisory Groups an effective form of localism? Journal of environmental planning and management, 62(2), 205-228. https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2017.1406343

12) Das Gupta, A., Babel, M. S., Albert, X., & Mark, O. (2005). Water sector of Bangladesh in the context of integrated water resources management: A review [Review]. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 21(2), 385-398. https://doi.org/10.1080/07900620500037818

13) Gain, A. K., Giupponi, C., & Benson, D. (2015). The water–energy–food (WEF) security nexus: the policy perspective of Bangladesh. Water International, 40(5-6), 895-910.

14) Gain, A. K., Giupponi, C., & Renaud, F. G. (2012). Climate change adaptation and vulnerability assessment of water resources systems in developing countries: a generalized framework and a feasibility study in Bangladesh. Water, 4(2), 345-366.

15) Gain, A. K., Mondal, M. S., & Rahman, R. (2017a). From Flood Control to Water Management: A Journey of Bangladesh towards Integrated Water Resources Management. Water, 9(1), 55.

16) Gain, A. K., Mondal, M. S., & Rahman, R. (2017b). From flood control to water management: A journey of Bangladesh towards integrated water resources management [Review]. Water (Switzerland), 9(1), Article 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010055

17) Gain, A. K., Rouillard, J. J., & Benson, D. (2013). Can integrated water resources management increase adaptive capacity to climate change adaptation? A critical review. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 5(04), 11.

18) Gain, A. K., & Schwab, M. (2012). An assessment of water governance trends: The case of Bangladesh. Water Policy, 14(5), 821-840.

19) Garcia, L. E. (2008). Integrated water resources management: a ‘small’step for conceptualists, a giant step for practitioners. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 24(1), 23-36.

20) GWP. (2000). Integrated Water Resources Management. TAC Background Paper No. 4. Global Water Partnership: Stockholm, Sweden.

21) Hossain, M. S., Dearing, J. A., Rahman, M. M., & Salehin, M. (2016). Recent changes in ecosystem services and human well-being in the Bangladesh coastal zone. Regional Environmental Change, 16(2), 429-443.

22) Hossain, N., & Bahauddin, K. M. (2013). Integrated water resource management for mega city: a case study of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Journal of Water and Land Development, 19(1), 39-45.

23) Huq, N., Hugé, J., Boon, E., & Gain, A. (2015). Climate Change Impacts in Agricultural Communities in Rural Areas of Coastal Bangladesh: A Tale of Many Stories. Sustainability, 7(7), 8437. http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/7/7/8437

24) Islam, M. R., Jahan, C. S., Rahaman, M. F., & Mazumder, Q. H. (2020). Governance status in water management institutions in Barind Tract, Northwest Bangladesh: an assessment based on stakeholder’s perception. Sustainable Water Resources Management, 6(2), 1-14.

25) Klijn, E.-H., & Koppenjan, J. (1999). Network Management and Decision Making in Networks: A Multi-actor Approach to Governance: Network Management Strategies as Solutions for Governance Problems in Complex Decision Making. Netherlands Institute of Government.

26) Klijn, E.-H., & Koppenjan, J. F. (2000). Public management and policy networks: foundations of a network approach to governance. Public Management an International Journal of Research and Theory, 2(2), 135-158.

27) Klijn, E. H. (2009). Policy and Implementation Networks: Managing Complex Interactions. In The Oxford Handbook of Inter-Organizational Relations. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199282944.003.0005

28) Koppenjan, J. F. M., & Klijn, E.-H. (2004). Managing uncertainties in networks: a network approach to problem solving and decision making. Psychology Press.

29) Megdal, S. B., Eden, S., & Shamir, E. (2017). Water governance, stakeholder engagement, and sustainable water resources management [Editorial]. Water (Switzerland), 9(3), Article 190. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030190

30) MoWR. (2013). Bangladesh Water Act, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

31) Pandey, P. (2020). Water Management in Bangladesh: Policy Interventions. In Water Issues in Himalayan South Asia (pp. 29-50). Springer.

32) Rahaman, M. M., & Varis, O. (2009). Integrated water management of the Brahmaputra basin: Perspectives and hope for regional development [Article]. Natural Resources Forum, 33(1), 60-75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-8947.2009.01209.x

33) Rasheed, K. B. S. (2011). Water Resources Management: with example from Bangladesh, A H Development Publishing House, Dhaka 1205.

34) Rashid, H. E. (1991). Geography of Bangladesh, University Press Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

35) Rouillard, J. J., Benson, D., & Gain, A. K. (2014). Evaluating IWRM implementation success: are water policies in Bangladesh enhancing adaptive capacity to climate change impacts? [Article]. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 30(3), 515-527. https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2014.910756

36) WARPO. (2001). National Water Management Plan: Volume 1-Summary; Water Resources Planning Organisation, Ministry of Water Resources, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

37) WARPO. (2015). Integrated Water Resources Management, Water Resources Planning Organization, Ministry of Water Resources, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

38) WARPO. (2020). Land and Water Resources. National Water Management Plan Project. Topic Paper No. 7, Water Resources Planning Organization, Dhaka.

39) World Bank. (2017). Water Management Improvement Project (WMIP), Bangladesh, Implementation Completion and Result Report (IDA-43590 TF-94800), Report No. ICR00003136, Document of the World Bank.

40) WWF. (2015). Water Governance in Bangladesh: Challenges and Opportunities Around Policy, Institutional Function and Implementation for A Sustainable Water Future, World Wide Fund For Nature, Pioneering Water Stewardship For Fashion, Avenue du Mont-Blanc, 1196 Gland, Switzerland.


Indexed In

Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar