Muhammadiyah and the Empowerment of Street Children in Indonesia
1Abdul Haris,2 Isa Saleh
1,2Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, East Java, Indonesia
DOI : https://doi.org/10.47191/ijsshr/v4-i10-16

Google Scholar Download Pdf

This research was aimed at describing the empowerment of street children conducted by the head of Muhammadiyah branch of Krembangan Surabaya-East Java, Indonesia. This research employed a qualitative approach with case study. The data were obtained through observations, interviews, and documentation and were analyzed using an interactive technique proposed by Miles, Huberman, and Saldana. The data validity was tested using the triangulation method. The research showed that the empowerment of street children made by the head of Muhammadiyah branch of Krembangan Surabaya East Java was a part of the social da'wah inspired from the theology of surrah al-Mā`ūn. In empowering the street children, the head of Muhammadiyah branch of Krembangan Surabaya-East Java used three approaches: Street -, Centre - and Community-based approaches.


empowerment; Muhammadiyah; street child


1) Abror, Indal, and Muhammad Nurdin Zuhdi. 2018. “Tafsir Al-Qur’an Berkemajuan: Exploring Methodological Contestation and Contextualization of Tafsir At-Tanwir by Tim Majelis Tarjih Dan Tajdid PP Muhammadiyah.” ESENSIA: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin 19 (2): 249. https://doi.org/10.14421/esensia.v19i2.1347.

2) Agbiji, Obaji M, and Ignatius Swart. 2015. “Religion and Social Transformation in Africa: A Critical and Appreciative Perspective.” Scriptura 114 (1): 1–20.

3) Akbarina, Zikria, Nurhasanah, and Martunis. 2017. “Efforts to Guide Street Children at UPTD Rumoh Seujahtera Aneuk Nanggroe.” Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Bimbingan Dan Konseling 4 (4): 59–67.

4) Al-Bar, Mohammed Ali, and Hassan Chamsi-Pasha. 1998. “The Sources of Common Principles of Morality and Ethics in Islam.” In Contemporary Bioethics: Islamic Perspective, edited by Mohammed Ali Al-Bar and Hassan Chamsi-Pasha, 4:1– 3. Springer Open. https://doi.org/10.5840/teachphil201134223.

5) Al-Husseini, Khadijeh Abolmaalii, Fazaleh Mirghafoorian, and Sara Razian. 2020. “Strategies for Dealing with Problems from the Perspective of Islam.” International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding 7 (10): 145–52.

6) Ali, M. 2020. “Between Faith and Social Relations: The Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama’s Fatwas and Ideas on Non-Muslims and Interreligious Relations.” Muslim World 110 (4): 458–80. https://doi.org/10.1111/muwo.12363.

7) Anandar, Rivanlee, and Hery Wibowo. 2015. “Center-Based Approach Model in Dealing with Female Street Children.” Share : Social Work Journal 5 (2): 106–208. https://doi.org/10.24198/share.v5i2.13139.

8) Annisa, A. 2020. “The Ministry of Social Affairs Commitment to Help Children in COVID-19 Conditions.” Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Rehabilitasi Sosial-Kementerian Sosial Republik Indonesia. https://kemsos.go.id/komitmen-kemensos-bantu-anakanak-di-kondisi-covid-19-melalui-progresa.

9) Aptekar, Lewis, and Daniel Stoecklin. 2014. “Children in Street Situations: Street Children and Homeless Youth.” In Street Children and Homeless Youth, edited by L. Aptekar and D. Stoecklin, 5–61. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007- 7356-1_2.

10) Armita, Pipin. 2018. “Improving Street Children Welfare with Self Esteem Theory.” Jurnal Penelitian Kesejahteraan Sosial 15 (4): 377–86.

11) Bahar, H, Z Hassan, Iswan, and H Firas. 2019. “Overcome the Problem of Street Children through Life Skill Learning in West Java Indonesia.” Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development 10 (4): 1433–37. https://doi.org/10.5958/09765506.2019.00915.X.

12) Baidhawy, Zakiyuddin. 2012. “Distributive Principles of Economic Justice: An Islamic Perspective.” Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies 2 (2): 241–66.https://doi.org/10.18326/ijims.v2i2.241-266.

13) ———. 2015a. “Lazismu and Remaking the Muhammadiyah’s New Way of Philanthropy.” Al-Jami’ah 53 (2): 387–412. https://doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2015.532.387412.

14) ———. 2015b. “The Role of Faith-Based Organization in Coping with Disaster Management and Mitigation Muhammadiyah’s Experience.” Journal of Indonesian Islam 9 (2): 167–94. https://doi.org/10.15642/JIIS.2015.9.2.167- 194.

15) ———. 2017. “Muhammadiyah and the Islamic Spirit Are Progressing in the Light of the Alquran Ethos.” Afkaruna: Indonesian Interdisciplinary Journal of Islamic Studies 13 (1): 17–47.

16) https://doi.org/10.18196/aiijis.2017.0066.17-47.

17) Baidhawy, Zakiyuddin, and Azaki Khoirudin. 2018. “The Core Ethos and the Progressive Spirit of Muhammadiyah Socio-Religious Movement.” Journal of Al-Tamaddun 13 (2): 27–41. https://doi.org/10.22452/jat.vol13no2.3.

18) Bajari, Atwar, and Engkus Kuswarno. 2020. “Violent Language in the Environment of Street Children Singer-Beggars.” Heliyon 6 (8): e04664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04664.

19) Baron, B. 2003. “Islam, Philanthropy, and Political Culture in Interwar Egypt the Activism of Labiba Ahmad.” In Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts, 239–54.

20) https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.084897224237&partnerID=40&md5=94e 3c0115e6b6b12139d446a 3c6adc16.

21) Bhukuth, Augendra, and Jérôme Ballet. 2015. “Children of the Street: Why Are They in the Street? How Do They Live?” Economics and Sociology 8 (4): 134–48. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2015/8-4/10.

22) BPS Provinsi Jawa Timur. 2019. “Persons with Social Welfare Problems by District / City in East Java Province.” Surabaya: BPS Provinsi Jawa Timur. https://jatim.bps.go.id/linkTabelStatis/view/id/105.

23) Bragg, H. Lien. 2003. Child Protection in Families Experiencing Domestic Violence. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

24) Brown, R A. 2013. Islam in Modern Thailand: Faith, Philanthropy and Politics. Islam in Modern Thailand: Faith, Philanthropy and Politics. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315887203.

25) Burhani, A. N. 2018. “Outlook of Muhammadiyah: Liberalism, Pluralism and Islamism.” Studia Islamika 25 (3): 433–70. https://doi.org/10.15408/sdi.v25i3.7765.

26) ———. 2020a. “Resisting Conservatism Muhammadiyah’s Experience through Its Social Activities.” In Rising Islamic Conservatism in Indonesia: Islamic Groups and Identity Politics, 80–94. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.085095610526&partnerID=40&md5=abf0b50101ac0070ba25412a d59b22b5.

27) ———. 2020b. “Torn between Muhammadiyah and Ahmadiyah in Indonesia: Discussing Erfaan Dahlan’s Religious Affiliation and Self-Exile.” Indonesia and the Malay World 48 (140): 60–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639811.2019.1663678.

28) Chalya, P L, K A Hauli, N M Kayange, W Mweteni, A Kapessa, and S E Ngallaba. 2016.

29) “Trauma Admissions among Street Children at a Tertiary Care Hospital in NorthWestern Tanzania: A Neglected Public Health Problem.” Tanzania Journal of Health Research 18 (3). https://doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v18i2.x.

30) Chama, S B. 2008. “The Problem of African Orphans and Street Children Affected by HIV/AIDS: Making Choices between Community-Based and Institutional Care Practices.” International Social Work 51 (3): 410–15. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020872807088086.

31) Clark, Helen, Awa Marie Coll-Seck, Anshu Banerjee, Stefan Peterson, Sarah L. Dalglish, Shanthi Ameratunga, Dina Balabanova, et al. 2020. “A Future for the World’s Children? A WHO–UNICEF–Lancet Commission.” The Lancet 395 (10224): 605–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32540-1.

32) Copland, Michael, and Kathryn Roberts. 2010. Children Living Away from Parents in the Pacific. Unicef. UNICEF.

33) Cummings, Prince A. 2007. ““Factors Related to the Street Children Phenomenon in Major Towns in Sierra Leone: A Comparative Study of the City’s Street Children and Children in Normal Family Homes.” A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of Doctor of Philosophy. St. Clements University.

34) Dozva, Martha. 2018. “The Impact of Urban Street Community on Young Children ’ s Educational Development in Zimbabwe” 2018 (March).

35) Elhady, Aminullah. 2015. “Muhammadiyah: A Reform Movement for Empowerment and Enlightenment.” In Proceedings of ICIC2015 – International Conference on Empowering Islamic Civilization in the 21st Century, 183–90. Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia.

36) ———. 2017. “Islamic Reform Movement in Indonesia: Role of Muhammadiyah in Social Empowerment.” International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 7 (8): 340–50. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v7-i8/3234.

37) Ellemers, Naomi, Jojanneke van der Toorn, Yavor Paunov, and Thed van Leeuwen. 2019. “The Psychology of Morality: A Review and Analysis of Empirical Studies Published From 1940 Through 2017.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 23 (4): 332–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868318811759.

38) Fanani, Ahwan. 2019. “Ahmad Dahlan’s Perspective on the Model of Modern Integration of Islamic Education.” Nadwa : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam 13 (1): 95–120. https://doi.org/10.21580/nw.2019.1.1.3624.

39) Fauzia, A. 2013. Faith and the State: A History of Islamic Philanthropy in Indonesia. Faith and the State: A History of Islamic Philanthropy in Indonesia. Vol. 1. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004249202.

40) Gentles-Gibbs, Natallie. 2016. “Child Protection and Family Empowerment: Competing Rights or Accordant Goals?” Child Care in Practice 22 (4): 386–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/13575279.2016.1188760.

41) Ghodousi, N, F Sajedi, H Mirzaie, and P Rezasoltani. 2017. “The Effectiveness of

42) Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy on Externalizing Behavior Problems among Street and Working Children.” Iranian Rehabilitation Journal 15 (4): 359–66. https://doi.org/10.29252/nrip.irj.15.4.359.

43) Grisewood, Nicholas, Saskia Brand, Henry Ruiz, Kaidatou Cissé Abbassi, and Vicki Walker. 2008. Best Practices in Preventing and Eliminating Child Labor through Education. Community-Based Innovations for the Reduction of Child Labor through Education (CIRCLE ) Project.

44) Groff, Linda, and Paul Smoker. 2015. “Spirituality, Religion, Culture, and Peace: Exploring the Foundation for Inner-Outer Peace in the Twenty-First Century - Groff and Smoker.” The International Journal of Peace Studies 1 (1): 1–30.

45) Guarcello, L, and N Koseleci. 2009. “A Profile of Cairo Street Children.” 64519. Understanding Children’s Work (UCW) Programme.

46) Guernina, Z. 2004. “The Sexual and Mental Health Problems of Street Children: A Transcultural Preventative Approach in Counselling Psychology.” Counselling Psychology Quarterly 17 (1): 99–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515070410001665721.

47) Gunawan, Andri. 2018. “Theology of Surat Al-Maun and Social Praxis in the Life of Muhammadiyah Citizens.” SALAM: Jurnal Sosial Dan Budaya Syar-I 5 (2): 161–78. https://doi.org/10.15408/sjsbs.v5i2.9414.

48) Hasan, S. 2011. “Tradition and Modernity in Islam: A Reading through Power, Property and Philanthropy.” Intellectual Discourse 19 (1): 161–74. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-79958851799&partnerID=4 0&md5=1516411091d06099ba911baba97042a2.

49) Haspels, Nelien, Zaitun Mohamed Kasim, Constance Thomas, and Deirdre Mccann. 2001. Action against Sexual Harassment at Work in Asia and the Pacific. International Labour Organization.

50) Herrington, Luke M. 2013. “Globalization and Religion in Historical Perspective: A Paradoxical Relationship.” Religions 4 (1): 145–65. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel4010145.

51) Hills, Frances, Anna Meyer-Weitz, and Kwaku Oppong Asante. 2016. “The Lived Experiences of Street Children in Durban, South Africa: Violence, Substance Use, and Resilience.” International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being 11 (June).https://doi.org/10.3402/qhw.v11.30302.

52) Hilmy, M. 2014. “The Double-Edged Sword of Islamic Reform: Muhammadiyah and the Dilemma of Tajdid within Indonesian Islam.” RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 48 (1): 183–206.

53) https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2s2.084926369236&partnerID=40&md5=3100b9f8c0f3c48b73a9dda3aa bd1958.

54) Hjelm, T. 2009. “Religion and Social Problems: A New Theoretical Perspective.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Sociology of Religion. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199588961.013.0052.

55) ———. 2011a. “Religion and Social Problems: Three Perspectives.” In Religion and Social Problems, 1–12.

56) https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203835104.

57) ———. 2011b. Religion and Social Problems. Religion and Social Problems. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203835104.

58) Hsiao, Yun Ju, Kyle Higgins, and Lindsay Diamond. 2018. “Parent Empowerment: Respecting Their Voices.” Teaching Exceptional Children 51 (1): 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040059918790240.

59) Huda, Sokhi. 2011. “Mustad’afin Theology in Indonesia: Study of Muhammadiyah Theology.” Tsaqafah 7 (2): 345. https://doi.org/10.21111/tsaqafah.v7i2.8.

60) Idris, M. 2020. “Has a Hospital to a Campus, How Many Total Land Assets Belong to Muhammadiyah.” Kompas, December 28, 2020.

61) https://money.kompas.com/read/2020/12/28/112445526/punya-rs-hingga-kampusberapa-total-aset-tanah-milik-muhammadiyah?page=all.

62) Jonkers, Peter. 2017. “Religion as a Source of Evil.” International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 78 (4–5): 419–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/21692327.2017.1322915.

63) Kastolani, K. 2020. Islam and Modernity: An Islamic Reform Movement in Indonesia. Kreasi Total Media.

64) Khoirudin, Azaki, and Ari Anshori. 2018. “Al-’Asher School: The Philosophical of K.H. Ahmad Dahlan’s Character Education.” ISEEDU 2 (1): 17–45.

65) Khoirudin, Azaki, Zakiyuddin Baidhawy, and Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor. 2020. “Exploring Muhammadiyah’s Historical Civilizational Dimension of Social Reconstruction in Indonesia: Humanitarian and Cosmopolitan Approaches.” Journal of Al-Tamaddun 15 (1): 183–97. https://doi.org/10.22452/JAT.vol15no1.13.

66) Khuwaja, Uzair, Kaleem Ahmed, Ghulam Abid, and Ahmad Adeel. 2020. “Leadership and Employee Attitudes: The Mediating Role of Perception of Organizational Politics.” Cogent Business and Management 7.

67) https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2020.1720066.

68) Lisdiawati, Tantri, Erik Polim Sinurat, and Asyifa Fauzia Rahma. 2013. “The Role of Social Service in Empowering the Street Children Through Children Social Welfare Rogram ( Pksa ) in Bandung West,” 60–74.

69) Liu, P. 2011. “On the Problem of Developing a Mechanism for the Participation of Religion in the Social Services Sector.” Religion in Chinese Societies. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84909187257&partnerID= 40&md5= 68d1df8bd0 7615e82f703d1159a89a15.

70) Lusk, Mark W. 1989. “Street Children Programs in Latin America.” The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 16 (1): 6. https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/jssw/vol16/iss1/6.

71) Mack, Alison, Alina Baciu, and Nirupa Goel. 2014. Supporting a Movement for Health and Health Equity: Lessons from Social Movements: Workshop Summary. The National Academies Press.

72) Madanchian, Mitra, Norashikin Hussein, Fauziah Noordin, and Hamed Taherdoost. 2017. “Leadership Effectiveness Measurement and Its Effect on Organization Outcomes.” Procedia Engineering 181:1043–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.02.505.

73) Mayock, Paula, and Krizan Vekic. 2006. Understanding Youth Homelessness in Dublin City: Key Findings from the First Phase of a Longitudinal Cohort Study. Dublin: Minister for Children.

74) McKay, Ryan, and Harvey Whitehouse. 2015. “Religion and Morality.” Religion and Morality 141 (2): 447–73. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038455.

75) Miles, Matthew B., A. Michael Huberman, and Johnny Saldana. 2014. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methodes Sourcebook. 3rd Ed. Singapore: Sage. http://www.theculturelab.umd.edu/uploads/1/4/2/2/14225661/miles-hubermansaldana-designing-matrix-and-network-displays.pdf.

76) Miller, Leon, and Gordon L. Anderson. 2009. “Religion’s Role in Creating National Unity.” International Journal on World Peace 26 (1): 91–138. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20752875.

77) Molero, Fernando, Juan A. Moriano, and Phillip R. Shaver. 2013. “The Influence of Leadership Style on Subordinates’ Attachment to the Leader.” Spanish Journal of Psychology 16 (May 2014). https://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2013.67.

78) Molokotos-Liederman, L. 2011. “Religion as a Solution to Social Problems: A Christian Orthodox Approach to International Humanitarian Issues.” In Religion and Social Problems, 82–97. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203835104.

79) Mooney, Ann, Chris Oliver, and Marjorie Smith. 2009. Impact of Family Breakdown on Children’s Well-Being : Evidence Review. Institute of Education, University of London.

80) Mugove, Kudenga, and Hlatywayo Lincoln. 2014. “Why Children Leave Their Homes for the Streets? The Case of Harare.” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 5 (10): 1–5. www.ijsrp.org.

81) Mustakim, Muh, Syamsul Arifin, Moh Nur Hakim, Akhsanul In’am, and Tumin Tumin.

82) 2020. “Indonesian Islamic Modernist Movement: Study on the Background of Islamic Organization Muhammadiyah.” International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation 24 (8): 4961–70.

83) Nashir, H, D T Kartono, R K D Susilo, and B Setiaji. 2019. “Islam in Indonesia: From Puritanism to Enlightening Religion in the Case of Muhammadiyah.” Asia Life Sciences 28 (1): 51–62. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2s2.085066747887&partnerID=40&md5=9734509dfb3f005efea81528d7 269950.

84) Nashir, Haedar. 2019. “Caring for and Developing Muhammadiyah Charities.” Suara Muhammadiyah. Suara Muhammadiyah. https://www.suaramuhammadiyah.id/2019/12/26/merawat-dan-mengembangkanamal-usaha-muhammadiyah/.

85) Nasofa, Aniyatul, Muhadjir Effendy, and Nurhadi. 2011. “Street Children Mentoring Strategy (Case Study in East Java Humanitarian Network).” Jurnal Pendidikan Nonformal 11 (1): 1–7.

86) Nasution, Hasyimsyah, and Hasrat Efendi Samosir. 2019. “Empowerment of Philantropy in Improving the Well-Being of Muhammadiyah Citizens in Indonesia.” Miqot 43 (2): 278–99.

87) Ningsih, Arum Retno, and D. Djuniadi. 2015. “Qausun Quzah Home, Save Street Child.” In Proceedings of the 12th Hokkaido Indonesian Student Association Scientific Meeting ( HISAS- 12 ): Science Development, edited by La Ode Muhammad Yasir Haya, 22–25. PPI Hokkaido.

88) O’Haire, Hilary E. 2011. “Living on the Streets: The Street Children of Brazil.” Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse. http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=506.

89) Owoaje, ET, AO Adebiyi, and MC Asuzu. 2011. “Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Street Children in Rural Communities Undergoing Urbanization.” Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine 7 (1): 10–15. https://doi.org/10.4314/aipm.v7i1.64055.

90) Papalapu, Desy Merdiana, J Nawawi, H Tahir, and H Akib. 2016. “The Role of the

91) Department of Social in Empowering the Street Children in Makassar.” International Journal of Economic Research 13 (1): 101–13. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84976571477&partnerID=40&md5=2e1fe69583 049a35505e80000d921ef0.

92) Putra, Fikriryandi, Dessy Hasanah, and Eva Nuriyah. 2015. “Empowerment of Street Children at Open Houses.” Share : Social Work Journal 5 (1): 51–64. https://doi.org/10.24198/share.v5i1.13118.

93) Qorib, M. 2020. “Practicing ‘The Ideal Islam Doctrines’ among Muhammadiyah Members in Karangtengah Imogiri.” IJISH (International Journal of Islamic Studies and Humanities) 1 (1): 21–31. https://publication.umsu.ac.id/index.php/ht/article/download/456/419.

94) Rachmawati, Emma. 2019. “Islamic-Based Organization in Indonesia: Role of Muhammadiyah in Health Improvement.” In International Conference on Social Determinants of Health, 44–51. Science and Technology Publications, Lda. https://doi.org/10.5220/0008378000440051.

95) Rahmanto, Mukhlis, Mohammad Syifa Amin Widigdo, and Rozikan. 2018.

96) “Reintepretation of Islam and Civil Society Empowerment; Case of Majelis Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Muhammadiyah.” Humanities and Social Sciences Reviews 6 (2): 127–32. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2018.6216.

97) Razack, Saleem. 2009. “Vulnerable and Marginalized Children: Who Are They and How Can We Help?” Paediatrics and Child Health 14 (5): 287–89. https://doi.org/10.1093/pch/14.5.287.

98) Rizk, H I, N M El Rifai, and H M Aboulghar. 2017. “Health Problems among Street Children Seeking Care in the Center for Social and Preventive Medicine in Egypt.” World Journal of Pediatrics 13 (5): 503–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12519- 017-0028-3.

99) Rogers, Megan, and Mary Ellen Konieczny. 2018. “Does Religion Always Help the Poor? Variations in Religion and Social Class in the West and Societies in the Global South.” Palgrave Communications 4 (1). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-018-0135-3.

100) Ryandi, Dimas. 2020. “108th Anniversary, Bamsoet: Indonesia and Muhammadiyah Are One Unit.” Jawa Pos, November 18, 2020. https://www.jawapos.com/nasional/18/11/2020/milad-ke-108-bamsoet-indonesiadan-muhammadiyah-itu-satu-kesatuan/.

101) Sai, TirunagariSri Ranga, and SaiShankar Prathap. 2015. “Community Empowerment: Holistic Approach for Sustainable Improvements in Population Health.” Indian Journal of Public Health 59 (3): 163. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-557x.164647.

102) Singh, Simrin, and Sarah McLeish. 2013. “Social Protection and Its Effectiveness in Tackling Child Labour: The Case of Internal Child Migrants in Indonesia.” In SMERU Conference on Child Poverty and Social Protection, 1–29. SMERU.

103) Suwarno, S. 2020. “Relationship between Muhammadiyah and Politics in Parliamentary Democracy Period (A Case Study in Banyumas ).” IHiS Indonesian Historical Studies 4 (2): 12–21. https://doi.org/10.14710/ihis.v4i1.6598.

104) Suyatna, Hempri. 2011. “Revitalizing the Model for Handling Street Children in Open Houses.” Jurnal Ilmu Sosial Dan Ilmu Poltik 15 (1):41–54. https://doi.org/10.22146/jsp.10924.

105) Tahiri Jouti, Ahmed. 2019. “An Integrated Approach for Building Sustainable Islamic Social Finance Ecosystems.” ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance 11 (2): 246– 66. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJIF-10-2018-0118.

106) Tatsuru, Akimoto, and Takashi Fujioka. 2016. Islamic Social Work Practice: Experiences of Muslim Activities in Asia. Edited by Kana Matsuo. Social Work Practice. Chiba: Asian Center for Social Work Research (ACSWR) and Asian Center for Welfare in Society (ACWelS).

107) Thapa, K, S Ghatane, and S P Rimal. 2009. “Health Problems among the Street Children of Dharan Municipality.” Kathmandu University Medical Journal 7 (27): 272–79. https://doi.org/10.3126/kumj.v7i3.2737.

108) Tudorić-Ghemo, Athena. 2005. “Life on the Street and the Mental Health of Street Children – A Developmental Perspective.” University of Johannesburg.

109) Volpi, Elena. 2002. “Street Children: Promising Practices and Approaches.” WBI Working Papers.

110) Wahyuni, Nur Indah, Sucihatiningsih Dian, Wisika Prajanti, and Moh Yasir Alimi. 2018. “Social Action of Street Children to Sustain Their Life in Pati Regency.” Journal of Educational Social Studies 7 (24): 67–74.

111) Wang, Honglei, and Bichen Guan. 2018. “The Positive Effect of Authoritarian Leadership on Employee Performance: The Moderating Role of Power Distance.” Frontiers in Psychology 9 (MAR): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00357.

112) Wibisono, Susilo, Winnifred R. Louis, and Jolanda Jetten. 2019. “A Multidimensional Analysis of Religious Extremism.” Frontiers in Psychology 10 (November). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02560.

113) Widiyawati, Anita Tri. 2020. “Knowledge Empowerment Development Model (Study at the Paseban Village Library, Kencong District, Jember Regency).” Tik Ilmeu : Jurnal Ilmu Perpustakaan Dan Informasi 4 (1): 77–95. https://doi.org/10.29240/tik.v4i1.1312.

114) Wijayanti, Nurjanah, and S. Suyadi. 2020. “Rational and Intuitive Brains in Islamic Education: Analysis of Al Ma’un Theology in the Neurosains Perspective.” Edukasi 8 (2): 1–25.

115) Yusmaliana, Desfa, Asyraf Suryadin, P. Djamaluddin, and Maulina Hendrik. 2020. “Building Educational Quality Frameowork: Semantic Study and Learning Implementation in Surah Al Ma’un.” J-MPI (Jurnal Manajemen Pendidikan Islam) 5 (1): 1–13.

116) Ziebertz, Hans-Georg. 2021. “Introduction to the Special Issue: Religion and Human Rights: Complementary or Contrary.” Religions 12: 109. https://doi.org/10.1177/0276146716670792.


Indexed In

Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar