Teachers’ Perspectives on Students’ Proficiency on Standardized Assessments: A Qualitative Case Study
Omofolarin Ashiru
American College of Education, IN

Google Scholar Download Pdf

The purpose of this qualitative descriptive case study was to examine teachers’ perspectives and review preparation materials to understand why students in SS3 were not proficient on the mathematics SSCE standardized assessments. Teachers were randomly selected, and semistructured phone interviews using open-ended questions were utilized to understand teacher perspectives, course preparation materials, and how the materials could be improved. The study aimed to determine what teachers perceive to be working, what challenges exist, and describe the mathematics preparation materials used in preparing students for the mathematics SSCE standardized assessments. The study revealed the need to develop the senior secondary schedule to make improvements in curriculum implementation and a need for appropriate instructional materials and adequate instructional time to ensure essential learning outcomes and core skills are taught effectively.


Standardized assessment, mathematics, curriculum, instruction


1) Akhsanul, I., & Siti, H. (2017). Learning geometry through discovery learning using a scientific approach. International Journal of Instruction, 10(1), 55–70. doi:10.12973/iji.2017.1014

2) Awofala, A. O. (2017). Assessing senior secondary school students’ mathematical proficiency as related to gender and performance in mathematics in Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 3(2), 488–502. doi:10.21890/ijres.327908

3) Balta, N., & Eryılmaz, A. (2019). The effect of the “teacher-led PD for teachers” professional development program on students’ achievement: An experimental study. Teacher Development, 23(5), 588–608. doi:10.1080/13664530.2019.1659176

4) Byoung-Gi, L. (2019). A study regarding the implementation method of blood donation education in a high school curriculum based upon J. S. Bruner’s earlier and later theories. Retrieved from

5) Clark, K. R. (2018). Learning theories: Constructivism [Editorial]. Radiologic Technology, 90(2), 180–182. Retrieved from

6) Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

7) Creswell, J. W. (2015). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

8) Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

9) Danielson, M., Månsdotter, A., Fransson, E., Dalsgaard, S., & Larsson, J. (2019). Clinicians’ attitudes toward standardized assessment and diagnosis within child and adolescent psychiatry. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 13(1), 1–13. doi:10.1186/s13034-019-0269-0

10) de Sousa, D. C. P., Magalhães, H. F., de Oliveira, E. S., & Albuquerque, U. P. (2019). Qualitative data analysis. In U. Albuquerque, R. de Lucena, L. C. da Cunha, & R. Alves (Eds.), Methods and techniques in ethnobiology and ethnoecology (pp. 45–54). doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-8919-5_5

11) Guo, J. X. (2019). Measuring information system project success through a software-assisted qualitative content analysis. Information Technology and Libraries, 38(1), 53–70. doi:10.6017/ital.v38i1.10603

12) Howard, S. J., Woodcock, S., Ehrich, J., & Bokosmaty, S. (2017). What are standardized literacy and numeracy tests testing? Evidence of the domain-general contributions to students’ standardized educational test performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(1), 108–122. doi:10.1111/bjep.12138

13) Ibrahim, W., Umar, H., & Clement, I. (2017). Impact of school facilities on students’ academic achievement. International Journal of Advanced Research, 5(12), 878–889. doi:10.21474/ijar01/6034

14) Ike, P. (2017). Problems and prospects of secondary education in Nigeria. International Journal of Education and Evaluation, 3(1), 44–51. Retrieved from 3 NO. 1 2017/PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS.pdf

15) Illeris, K. (2018). An overview of the history of learning theory. European Journal of Education, 53(1), 86–101. doi:10.1111/ejed.12265

16) In’am, A., & Hajar, S. (2017). Learning geometry through discovery learning using a scientific approach. International Journal of Instruction, 10(01), 55–70. doi:10.12973/iji.2017.1014a

17) Jitka, N., Jitka, P., & Pavlína, K. (2018). Teacher’s concept of constructivism in real conditions of school teaching. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6(11a), 133–138. doi:10.11114/jets.v6i11a.3810

18) Levy, S. T., Peleg, R., Ofeck, E., Tabor, N., Dubovi, I., Bluestein, S., & Ben-Zur, H. (2018). Designing for discovery learning of complexity principles of congestion by driving together in the TrafficJams simulation. Instructional Science, 46(1), 105–132. doi:10.1007/s11251-017-9440-2

19) Mossey, S., Bromberg, D., & Manoharan, A. P. (2018). Harnessing the power of mobile technology to bridge the digital divide: A look at U.S. cities’ mobile government capability. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 16(1), 52–65. doi:10.1080/19331681.2018.1552224

20) National Bureau of Statistics. (2019). WAEC results statistics 2016–2018. Retrieved from

21) Neuman, W. L. (2014). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Boston, MA: Pearson.

22) Ott, L. E., Carpenter, T. S., Hamilton, D. S., & LaCourse, W. R. (2018). Discovery learning: Development of a unique active learning environment for introductory chemistry. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 18(4), 161– 180. doi:10.14434/josotl.v18i4.23112

23) Polenova, A. Y. (2017). Constructivism in teaching English for special purposes at tertiary school. Journal of Economic Regulation, 8(3), 120–128. doi:10.17835/2078-5429.2017.8.3.120-128

24) Ponelis, S. R. (2015). Using Interpretive Qualitative Case Studies for Exploratory Research in Doctoral Studies: A Case of Information Systems Research in Small and Medium Enterprises. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 10, 535-550. doi:10.28945/2339

25) Salihu, M. J., & Jamil, H. (2015). Policy of Universal Basic Education in Nigeria: An examination of its effectiveness on implementation and management. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 5(6), 147–155. Retrieved from https://content/uploads/2019/10/WAEC_RESULTS_STATISTICS_2016-2018.pdf

26) Swain, A. K., Sen, D., & Gurumoorthy, B. (2014). Extended liaison as an interface between product and process model in assembly. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 30(5), 527–545. doi:10.1016/j.rcim.2014.02.005

27) Swain, J. (2019). A type of thematic analysis using an example of interview data about an adult learning mathematics. doi:10.4135/9781526486578

28) Syarifuddin, S. (2017). Comparison between the discovery learning model based learning and problem-based learning using scientific approach. Jurnal Daya Matematis, 5(1), 27–48. doi:10.26858/jds.v5i1.3029

29) Toklucu, S. K., & Tay, B. (2016). The effect of cooperative learning method and systematic teaching on students’ achievement and retention of knowledge in social studies lesson. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 16(66), 1– 35. doi:10.14689/ejer.2016.66.18

30) Vaishali, & Pradeep, K. M. (2019). Teaching teachers to use constructivist approaches: A proposal. I-Managers Journal on School Educational Technology, 14(4), 56–63. doi:10.26634/jsch.14.4.15651

31) Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). doi:10.3138/cjpe.30.1.108

32) Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research: Design and methods (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

33) Yurniwati, Y., & Hanum, L. (2017). Improving mathematics achievement of Indonesian 5th-grade students through guided discovery learning. Journal on Mathematics Education, 8(1), 77–84. doi:10.22342/jme.8.1.3209.77-84

34) Zaram, G. N., & Singh, P. (2018). An experimental study of self-regulated learning with mathematically gifted pupils in Nigerian primary schools. International Journal of Pedagogy and Curriculum, 25(3), 29–42. doi:10.18848/2327- 7963/cgp/v25i03/29-42

35) Zhang, H., & Kang, K. (2017). American PARCC and SBAC and their implications on the construction of English assessment system in China. International Education Studies, 10(1), 190–196. doi:10.5539/ies.v10n1p190


Indexed In

Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar