Letter- Writing as a Means of Escape in Alice Walker's the Color Purple
1Majid Masad Hamdan,2 Kadhim Dahawi Abbas
1,2Asst. Instructor: Directorate General of Education in the Holy Kerbela, the Superiors Preperatory School

Google Scholar Download Pdf

Escapism might be considered a life defense mechanism without which you might be burnt out faster by the stresses of everyday life. It helps the individual and even communities gain respite or achieve self- reorganization after social, sociological or psychological tensions. Letter- writing is one of its effective implements. It helps obtain a kind of personal relationship and deals with it faithfully and portrays the inner life as it is. The present study tends to explore the theme of escape represented by letter- writing in Alice Walker's. The Color Purple. It aims to demonstrate that Walker tries her best to give the heroine and her sister a chance to address God and each other directly and truly escaping from loneliness and weakness, as well as seeking for consolation and identity. Such a means is considered the only outlet for Celie, and ultimately her sister, who suffers self and familial banishment, psychological repression and sexual suppression. Her suffering is the result of an oppressive and sexually- agitated stepfather who brutalizes, rapes and impregnates her twice at an early stage of her life.


Escapism, defense mechanism, letter writing, stepfather, rape.


1) Baumeister, Roy F. & Brad J. Bushman, Social Psychology and Human Nature. Australia: Cengage, 2021.

2) Brearly, Michael. "Graham Greeneand a Burnt- Out Case": A Psychoanalytic Reading. In Dangerous Edges of Graham Greene Journeys With Saints and Sinners. Edited by Delmot Gilvary and Darren J. N. Middleton. London: The Tower Building, 2011. pp. 166-181.

3) Daniels, Kimberly. The demon Dictionary: An Expose on Cultural Practices, Symbols, Myths, and the Luciferian Doctrine. Vol. 2. New York: Charisma House, 2014.

4) Eagleton, Terry. The English Novel. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2011.

5) Goodman, Lizbeth. Literature and gender. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015.

6) Kelly, Erence B. Paths to Liberation in Alice Walker's The Color Purple. London: Greenwood Press, 1982.

7) Morris, Warren Frederick. Escaping Alienation: A Philosophy of Alienation and Dealienation. New York: University Press of America, Inc., 2002.

8) Sharma, Rachana. Abnormal Psychology. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers andDisturbors, 2006.

9) Routledge, Clay. Nostalgia: A Psychological Resource. New York: Taylor& Francis, 2016.

10) Smith, Brenda R. "We Need a Hero: African American Female Bildungsromane and Celi's Journey to Heroic Female Selfhood in Alice Walker's The Color Purple. In Alice Walker's The Color Purple. Edited by Kheven LaGrone. New York: Rodopi B. V., 2009. pp. 3- 23.

11) Tanner, Dennis C. Exploring the Psychology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Neurogenic Communication Disorders. Bloomington: iUniverse, 2010.

12) Traversa, Vincenso (Translator): Three Italian Epistolary Novels. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2005.

13) Tuan, Yi- Fu. Escapism. Virginia: Hopkins UP, 1988.

14) Walker, Alice. The Color Purple. New York: www. Openroadmedia. Com, 2011.

15) Watt, Ian. The Rise of the Novel. London: Fakenham and Reading, 1966.


Indexed In

Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar