The Concept of Resilience in Adults
Putri Nur Azizah
Post graduate students, Faculty of Psychology, Ahmad Dahlan University

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Individual always experiences both pleasant and unpleasant events. Resilience is an individual's capacity to deal with unpleasant events, through developing ways to transform stressful circumstances into an opportunity for personal development. Increasing resilience is an important task to provide capacity in facing life's challenges and difficulties. This literature review aims to identify and provide an overview of the concept of resilience in adults. The research was conducted by reviewing research results published from 2008 to 2018 that obtained from Google Scholar and also several journal databases such as Science Direct, SAGE, and Elsevier. Data search was done using keywords, including resilience and adult. The concept of resilience consists of understanding, influencing factors, aspects or dimensions, scales to measure resilience and therapy or interventions to increase resilience.


adults, individual capacity, resilience


1) J. M. Lesmana, Dasar-dasar konseling, Jakarta: UI Press, 2008.

2) W. Hendriani, Resiliensi psikologis, Jakarta: Prenadamedia Group, 2018.

3) E. M. Mary and S. Patra, “Relationship between forgiveness, gratitude and resilience among adolescents,” Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 63-68, 2015.

4) P. Fossion, C. Leys, C. Kempenaerd , S. Braun, P. Verbanck and P. Linkowski, “Depression, anxiety and loss of resilience after multiple traumas: an illustration of a mediated moderation model of sensitization in a group of children who survived the Nazi Holocaust,” Journal of affective disorder, vol. 151, no. 3, pp. 973-979, 2013.

5) D. M. Davydov, R. Stewart, K. Ritchie and I. Chaudieu, “Resilience and mental health,” Clinical psychology reviews, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 479-495, 2010.

6) M. Wells, “Resilience in older adults living in rural, suburban and urban areas,” Rural nurse organization, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 45-53, 2010.

7) A. D. Indranata, “Terapi pemaafan meningkatkan resiliensi pada keluarga (caregiver),” Thesis, 2018.

8) A. R. Fadhillah, Q. Uyyun and I. Sulistyarini, “Pengaruh terapi kognitif perilakuan berbasis kekuatan terhadap peningkatan resiliensi pada remaja panti asuhan,” Jurnal intervensi psikologi, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 95-106, 2017.

9) M. J. Garcia-Dia, J. M. DiNapoli, L. Garcia-Ona, R. Jakubowski and D. Flaherty, “Concept Analysis: Resilience,” Archives of psychiatric nursing, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 264-270, 2013.

10) P. A. Gooding, A. Hurst, J. Johnson and N. Tarrier, “Psychological resilience in young and older adults,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 262-270, 2011.

11) Raisa and A. Ediati, “Hubungan antara dukungan sosial dengan resiliensi pada narapidana di lembaga pemasyarakatan kelas II A wanita Semarang,” Jurnal Empati, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 537-542, 2016.

12) C. T. Utami, “Self efficacy dan resiliensi: Sebuah tinjauan meta-analisis,” Buletin psikologi, pp. 54-65, 2017.

13) F. Dong, C. Nelson, S. S. Haque, A. Khan and E. Ablah, “A modified CD-RISc: Including previously for resilience variables,” Kansas journal of medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 11-20, 2013.

14) S. Macleod, S. Musich, k. Hawkins, K. Alsgaard and E. Wicker, “The impact of resilience among older adults,” Geriatric nursing, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 266-272, 2016.

15) W. Aprilis, “Resiliensi dan Dukungan Sosial pada Orang Tua Tunggal (Studi Kasus pada Ibu Tunggal di Samarinda),” Psikoborneo: Jurnal ilmiah psikologi, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 157-163, 2013.

16) E. H. Grothberg, “The international resilience project: Research, application, and policy,” Paper presented at Symposio International Stress e Violencia, pp. 27-30, 1995.

17) G. M. Wagnild and H. M. Young, “Development and psychometric evaluation of the resilience scale,” Journal of nursing measurement, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 165-178, 1993.

18) K. M. Connor and J. R. Davidson, “Development of a new resilience scale: The connor-davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC),” Depression and anxiety, vol. 18, no. 76, pp. 76-82, 2003. [

19) A. N. Madewell and E. P. Garcia, “Assessing resilience in emerging adulthood: The Resilience Scale (RS), Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and Scale of Protective Factors (SPF),” Personality and individual differences, pp. 249-255, 2016.

20) B. F. Damasio and J. C. Borsa, “14-Item Resilience Scale (RS-14): Psychometric Properties of the Brazilian Version,” Journal of nursing measurement, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 131-145, 2011.

21) J. Li, Y. L. Theng and S. Foo, “Does psychological resilience mediate the impact of social support on geriatric depression? An exploratory study among Chinese older adults in Singapore,” Asian journal of psychiatry, vol. 14, pp. 22-27, 2015.

22) G. Corey, Theory and practices of counseling and psychotherapy, Velmont: Thompson learning, 2005.

23) D. R. Andriani, T. Afiatin and I. Sulistyarini, “Efektivitas pelatihan regulasi emosi untuk meningkatkan resiliensi caregiver keluarga pasien skizofrenia,” Jurnal intervensi psikologi, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 254-273, 2017.

24) J. C. Melendez, F. B. Fortuna and T. Mayordomo, “the effects of intrumental reminiscence on resilience and coping elderly,” Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 294-298, 2015.

25) A. R. Prasetyo and E. R. Kustanti, “Bertahan dengan lupus,” Jurnal Empati, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 139-148, 2014.

26) E. E. Rainey, L. B. Petrey, m. Reynolds, S. Agtarap and A. M. Warren, “Psychological factors predicting outcome after traumatic injury: the role of resilience,” The american journal of surgery, vol. 208, no. 4, pp. 517-523, 2014.

27) J. A. Zauszniewski, A. K. Bekhet and M. J. Suresky, “Indicators of Resilience in Family Members of Adults with Serious Mental Illness,” Psychiatric clinics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 131-146, 2015.

28) K. I. Pandanwati and V. Suprapti, “Resiliensi keluarga pada pasangan dewasa madya yang tidak memiliki anak,” Jurnal psikologi dan perkembangan , vol. 1, no. 03, pp. 1-8, 2012.


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