VOlUME 04 ISSUE 06 JUNE 2021
The Role of Communication Justice and Assertive Communication in B2C Marketplace Post Recovery Satisfaction
1Kussusanti,2 Prijono Tjiptoherijanto,3 Rizal Edy Halim,4 Asnan Furinto
1Universitas Al Azhar Indonesia, Jl. Sisingamangaraja No. 2, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia
2Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Depok, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
3Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Depok, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
4Binus University, Jl. K.H. Syahdan No. 9, Kemanggisan, Palmerah, Jakarta Barat, Indonesia

Google Scholar Download Pdf

The rapid growth of e-commerce, unfortunately, has not been supported by the improved services. Customers complaints have not been handled properly, due to the lack of non face-to-face communication. In the other hand, customers express their complaints in various ways, such as the assertive way. 317 respondents were collected as a sample of this research, who are B2C online customers in Indonesia, experienced service failure in the last 6 months, submitted a complaint and received a response. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze. This study proved that there was a positive influence of communication justice on post-recovery satisfaction. However, assertive communication did not influence the post-recovery satisfaction. This research also proved that post-recovery satisfaction has a positive effect on online repurchase intention. This research is expected to contribute to marketing science, and practical contributions are given.


communication justice, assertive communication, post recovery satisfaction, online repurchase intention.


1) Ajzen, I. (1985) ‘From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior’, Action Control, pp. 11–39. doi: 10.1007/978- 3-642-69746-3_2.

2) Ambrose, M., Hess, R. L. and Ganesan, S. (2007) ‘The relationship between justice and attitudes: An examination of justice effects on event and system-related attitudes’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 103(1), pp. 21– 36. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.01.001.

3) Anderson, E. W. and Mittal, V. (2000) ‘Strengthening the satisfaction-profit chain’, Journal of Service Research, 3(2), pp. 107–120. doi: 10.1177/109467050032001.

4) Andreassen, T. W. (2000) ‘Antecedents to satisfaction with service recovery’, European Journal of Marketing, 34(1/2), pp. 156–175. doi: 10.1108/03090560010306269.

5) Badghish, S., Stanton, J. and Hu, J. (2015) ‘An exploratory study of customer complaint behaviour (CCB) in Saudi Arabia’, Asian Journal of Business Research, 4(3), pp. 50–68. doi: 10.14707/ajbr.150004.

6) Bennett, R. (1997) ‘Anger, catharsis, and purchasing behavior following aggressive customer complaints’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 14(2), pp. 156–172. doi: 10.1108/07363769710166774.

7) Berry, L. L. (1995) ‘Relationship marketing of services-growing interest, emerging perspectives’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23(4), pp. 236–245. doi: 10.1177/07399863870092005.

8) Bijmolt, T. H. A., Huizingh, E. K. R. E. and Krawczyk, A. (2014) ‘Effects of complaint behaviour and service recovery satisfaction on consumer intentions to repurchase on the internet’, Internet Research, 24(5), pp. 608–628. doi: 10.1108/IntR-03-2012-0056.

9) Bitner, M. J., Booms, B. H. and Tetreault, M. S. (1990) ‘The service encounter: Diagnosing favorable and unfavorable incidents’, Journal of Marketing, 54, pp. 71–84. doi: 10.2307/1252074.

10) Blodgett, J. G., Granbois, D. H. and Walters, R. G. (1993) ‘The effects of perceived justice on complaints’ negative word of mouth behavior and repatronage intentions’, Journal of Retailing, 69(4), pp. 399–428.

11) Blodgett, J. G., Hill, D. J. and Tax, S. S. (1997) ‘The effects of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice on postcomplaint behavior’, Journal of Retailing, 73(2), pp. 185–210. doi: 10.1016/S0022-4359(97)90003-8.

12) Butelli, S. (2007) ‘Consumer complaint behavior (CCB): A literature review’, Northumbria University, 1(September), pp. 1–30.

13) Chang, H. H., Lai, M. K. and Hsu, C. H. (2012) ‘Recovery of online service: Perceived justice and transaction frequency’, Computers in Human Behavior. Elsevier Ltd, 28(6), pp. 2199–2208. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.06.027.

14) Cheung, F. Y. M. and To, W. M. (2016) ‘A customer-dominant logic on service recovery and customer satisfaction’, Management Decision, 54(10), pp. 2524–2543. doi: 10.1108/MD-03-2016-0165.

15) Ching, H. L. and Ellis, P. (2006) ‘Does relationship marketing exist in cyberspace?’, Management International Review, 46(5), pp. 557–572. Available at:

16) Colquitt, J. A. (2001) ‘On the dimensionality of organizational justice: A construct validation of a measure’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), pp. 386–400. doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.86.3.386.

17) Cooper, D. R. and Schindler, P. S. (2014) Business research methods. 12th edn. New York: McGraw Hill.

18) Day, R. L. (1984) ‘Modeling choices among alternative responses to dissatisfaction’, Advances in Consumer Research, 11, pp. 496–499.

19) Duncan, T. and Moriarty, S. E. (1998) ‘A communication-based marketing model for managing relationships’, Journal of Marketing, 62(2), pp. 1–13. Available at:

20) ExecutiveVoice (2016) Communicating with different generations. Available at: (Accessed: 28 December 2017).

21) Fang, Y., Chiu, C. and Wang, E. T. G. (2011) ‘Understanding customers’ satisfaction and repurchase intentions’, Internet Research, 21(4), pp. 479–503. doi: 10.1108/10662241111158335.

22) Folger, R. and Konovsky, M. A. (1989) ‘Effects of procedural and distributive justice on reactions to pay raise decisions.’, Academy of Management Journal, 32(1), pp. 115–130. doi: 10.2307/256422.

23) Folger, R and Konovsky, M. A. (1989) ‘Effects of procedural and distributive Justice on reactions to pay raise decisions’, The Academy of Management Journal, 32(1), pp. 115–130.

24) Forbes, L. P., Kelley, S. W. and Hoffman, K. D. (2005) ‘Typologies of e‐commerce retail failures and recovery strategies’, Journal of Services Marketing, 19(5), pp. 280–292. doi: 10.1108/08876040510609907.

25) Fornell, C. and Westbrook, R. A. (1979a) ‘An exploratory study of assertiveness, aggressiveness, and consumer complaining behavior’, Advances in Consumer Research, 6, pp. 105–110.

26) Fornell, C. and Westbrook, R. A. (1979b) ‘An Exploratory Study of Assertiveness, Aggressiveness, and Consumer Complaining Behavior’, Advances in Consumer Research, 6, pp. 105–110.

27) Galassi, M. D., & Galassi, J. P. (1977) Assert yourself – how to be your own person. New York: Human Sciences Press.

28) Ghazali, E. M. (2011) Customer perceived switching barriers and their impact on loyalty and a habitual repurchase: A study of pure-play online retailers In The UK. The University of Warwick. Available at:

29) Gilstrap, J. B. and Collins, B. J. (2012) ‘The importance of being trustworthy: Trust as a mediator of the relationship between leader behaviors and employee job satisfaction’, Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 19(2), pp. 152–163. doi: 10.1177/1548051811431827.

30) Gohary, A., Hamzelu, B. and Alizadeh, H. (2016) ‘Please explain why it happened! How perceived justice and customer involvement affect post co-recovery evaluations: A study of Iranian online shoppers’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. Elsevier, 31, pp. 127–142. doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2016.03.013.

31) Goodwin, C. and Ross, I. (1992) ‘Consumer responses to service failures: Influence of procedural and interacional fairness perceptions’, Journal of Business Research, 25(2), pp. 149–163. Available at:

32) Goussinsky, R. (2011) ‘Customer aggression, emotional dissonance and employees’ well‐being’, International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 3(3), pp. 248–266. doi: 10.1108/17566691111182825.

33) Gronroos, C. (1988) ‘Service quality: the six criteria of good perceived service quality’, Review of Business., 9(3), pp. 10- 13.

34) Grönroos, C. and Voima, P. (2013) ‘Critical service logic: Making sense of value creation and co-creation’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(2), pp. 133–150. doi: 10.1007/s11747-012-0308-3.

35) Guo, L. et al. (2016) ‘The role of perceived control in customer value co-creation and service recovery evaluation’, Journal of Service Research, 19(1), pp. 39–56. doi: 10.1177/1094670515597213.

36) Hair, J. F. et al. (2009) Multivariate data analysis. 7th edn. Pearson Prentice Hall.

37) Hart, C. W., Heskett, J. L. and Sasser, W. E. (1990) ‘The profitable art of service recovery’, Harvard business review, 68(4), pp. 148–156. doi:

38) Hoffman, K. D. and Kelley, S. W. (2000) ‘Perceived justice needs and recovery evaluation: A contingency approach’, European Journal of Marketing, 34(3/4), pp. 418–433. doi: 10.1108/03090560010311939.

39) Holloway, B. B. and Beatty, S. E. (2003) ‘Service failure in online retailing: A recovery opportunity’, Journal of Service Research, 6(1), pp. 92–105. doi: 10.1177/1094670503254288.

40) Holloway, B. B., Wang, S. and Parish, J. T. (2005) ‘The role of cumulative online purchasing experience in service recovery management’, Journal of Interactive Marketing. Elsevier, 19(3), pp. 54–66. doi: 10.1002/dir.20043.

41) Hong, S. and Wang, Y. J. (2009) ‘When relationship marketing collides with technology’, Journal of Relationship Marketing, 8(3), pp. 218–230. doi: 10.1080/15332660902991080.

42) Im, J. Y. and Hancer, M. (2014) ‘Shaping travelers’ attitude toward travel mobile applications’, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 5(2), pp. 177–193. doi: 10.1108/JHTT-11-2013-0036.

43) Jeon, S. and Kim, J. S. (2016) ‘Effects of service failure on consumer responses across failure types: A moderating role of intimacy’, Australasian Marketing Journal. Elsevier Ltd, 24(1), pp. 46–53. doi: 10.1016/j.ausmj.2015.12.004.

44) Kattara, H. S. and El-Said, O. A. (2014) ‘Customers’ preferences for new technology-based self-services versus human interaction services in hotels’, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 13(2), pp. 67–82. doi: 10.1177/1467358413519261.

45) Kaur, P. and Sharma, S. K. (2015) ‘A measure of consumer complaining behaviour in service industry’, Paradigm, 19(1), pp. 37–51. doi: 10.1177/0971890715585200.

46) Kelly, L. (2017) How many people shop online?, CPC Strategy. Available at:

47) Kuo, Y. F. and Wu, C. M. (2012) ‘Satisfaction and post-purchase intentions with service recovery of online shopping websites: Perspectives on perceived justice and emotions’, International Journal of Information Management. Elsevier Ltd, 32(2), pp. 127–138. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2011.09.001.

48) Leventhal, G. S. (1976) ‘What should be done with equity theory? New approaches to the study of fairness in social relationships’, in Gergen, K. J., Greenberg, M. S., and Willis, R. H. (eds) Social Exchange THeory. John Wiley.

49) Li, C.-Y. (2015) ‘Switching barriers and customer retention’, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 25(4), pp. 370–393. doi: 10.1108/JSTP-10-2013-0220.

50) Liang, C. J., Chen, H. J. and Wang, W. H. (2008) ‘Does online relationship marketing enhance customer retention and cross-buying?’, Service Industries Journal, 28(6), pp. 769–787. doi: 10.1080/02642060801988910.

51) Lii, Y. and Lee, M. (2012) ‘The joint effects of compensation frames and price levels on service recovery of online pricing error’, Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 22(1), pp. 4–20. doi: 10.1108/09604521211198083.

52) Lin, H.-H., Wang, Y. and Chang, L. (2011) ‘Consumer responses to online retailer’s service recovery after a service failure’, Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 21(5), pp. 511–534. doi: 10.1108/09604521111159807.

53) Malhotra, N. K. (2010) Marketing research, an applied orientation. 6th edn. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

54) Mattila, A. S. (2001) ‘The effectiveness of service recovery in a multi‐industry setting’, Journal of Services Marketing, 15(7), pp. 583–596. doi: 10.1108/08876040110407509.

55) Mattila, A. S. and Wirtz, J. (2004) ‘Consumer complaining to firms: The eterminants of channel choice’, Journal of Services Marketing, 18(2), pp. 147–155. doi: 10.1108/08876040410528746.

56) Maxham, J. G. (2001) ‘Service recovery’s influence on consumer satisfaction , positive word-of-mouth, and purchase intentions’, Journal of Business Research, 54(1), pp. 11–24. doi: 10.1016/S0148-2963(00)00114-4.

57) Maxham, J. G. and Netemeyer, R. G. (2003) ‘Firms reap what they sow: The effects of shared values and perceived organizational justice on customers’ evaluations of complaint handling’, Journal of Marketing, 67(1), pp. 46–62. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.

58) McCollough, M. A. (2000) ‘The effect of perceived justice and attributions regarding service failure and recovery on post recovery customer satisfaction and service quality attitudes’, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 24(4), pp. 423– 447.

59) McCollough, M. A., Berry, L. L. and Yadav, M. S. (2000) ‘An empirical investigation of customer satisfaction after service failure and recovery’, Journal of Service Research, 3(2), pp. 121–137. doi: 10.1177/109467050032002.

60) Mehrabian, A. and Ferris, S. R. (1967) ‘Inference of attitudes from nonverbal communication in two channels’, Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31(3), pp. 48–158.

61) Nee, I. (2016) Managing negative word-of-mouth on social media platforms. doi: 10.1007/978-3-658-13998-8.

62) Nikbin, D., Ismail, I. and Marimuthu, M. (2013) ‘The relationship between informational justice, recovery satisfaction, and loyalty: The moderating role of failure attributions’, Service Business, 7(3), pp. 419–435. doi: 10.1007/s11628-012-0169- 3.

63) Norton, R. and Warnick, B. (1976) ‘Assertiveness as a communication construct’, Human Communication Research, 3(1), pp. 62–66.

64) Ortiz, J. et al. (2017) ‘Perceived justice, emotions, and behavioral intentions in the Taiwanese food and beverage industry’, International Journal of Conflict Management, 28(4), pp. 437–463. doi: 10.1108/IJCMA-10-2016-0084.

65) Phau, I. and Sari, R. P. (2004) ‘Engaging in complaint behaviour’, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 22(4), pp. 407–426. doi: 10.1108/02634500410542770.

66) Polyorat, K., Jung, J. M. and Hwang, Y. Y. (2012) ‘Effects of self-construals on consumer assertiveness/aggressiveness: Evidence from Thai and U.S. samples’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(5), pp. 738–747. doi: 10.1177/0022022112466589.

67) Rancer, A. S., & Avtgis, T. A. (2006) Argumentative and aggressive communication, theory, research, and application. SAGE Publications.

68) Richins, M. L. (1983) ‘An analysis of consumer interaction styles in the marketplace’, Journal of Consumer Research, 10(1), pp. 73–82.

69) Roggeveen, A. L., Tsiros, M. and Grewal, D. (2012) ‘Understanding the co-creation effect: When does collaborating with customers provide a lift to service recovery?’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(6), pp. 771–790. doi: 10.1007/s11747-011-0274-1.

70) Shannon, C. E. and Weaver, W. (1964) The mathematical theory of communication, The University of Illinois Press. Urbana. doi: 10.2307/3611062.

71) Shapiro, T. and Nieman-Gonder, J. (2006) ‘Effect of communication mode in justice-based service recovery’, Managing Service Quality, 16(2), pp. 124–144. doi: 10.1108/09604520610650619.

72) Smith, A. K. and Bolton, R. N. (1998) ‘An experimental investigation of customer reactions to service failure and recovery encounter: paradox or peril?’, Journal of Service Research, 1(5), pp. 65–81.

73) Smith, A. K. and Bolton, R. N. (2002) ‘The effect of customers’ emotional responses to service failures on their recovery effort evaluations and satisfaction judgments’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(1), pp. 5–23. doi: 10.1177/03079450094298.

74) Smith, A. K., Bolton, R. N. and Wagner, J. (1999) ‘A model of customer satisfaction with service encounters involving failure and recovery’, Journal of Marketing Research, 36(3), p. 356. doi: 10.2307/3152082.

75) Svari, S. and Olsen, L. E. (2012) ‘The role of emotions in customer complaint behaviors’, International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 4(3), pp. 270–282. doi: 10.1108/17566691211269585.

76) Tax, S. S., Brown, S. W. and Chandrashekaran, M. (1998) ‘Customer evaluations of service complaint experiences: Implications for relationship marketing’, Journal of Marketing, 62(2), p. 60. doi: 10.2307/1252161.

77) Taylor, S. (1994) ‘Waiting for service: The relationship between delays and evaluations of service’, Journal of Marketing, 58(2), p. 56. doi: 10.2307/1252269.

78) Thibaut, J. and Walker, L. (1978) ‘A theory of procedure’, California Law Review, 66(3), p. 541. doi: 10.2307/3480099.

79) van Vaerenbergh, Y., Larivière, B. and Vermeir, I. (2012) ‘The impact of process recovery communication on customer satisfaction, repurchase intentions, and word-of-mouth intentions’, Journal of Service Research, 15(3), pp. 262–279. doi: 10.1177/1094670512442786.

80) Valentine, Dawn B. and Powers, T. L. (2013) ‘Generation Y values and lifestyle segments’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 30(7), pp. 597–606. doi: 10.1108/JCM-07-2013-0650.

81) Valentine, D. B. and Powers, T. L. (2013) ‘Generation Y values and lifestyle segments’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 30(7), pp. 597–606. doi: 10.1108/JCM-07-2013-0650.

82) Vargo, S. L. and Lusch, R. F. (2004) ‘Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing’, Journal of Marketing, 68(1), pp. 1–17. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.

83) Vargo, S. L. and Lusch, R. F. (2008) ‘Service-dominant logic: Continuing the evolution’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), pp. 1–10. doi: 10.1007/s11747-007-0069-6.

84) Vargo, S. L. and Lusch, R. F. (2016) ‘Institutions and axioms: An extension and update of service-dominant logic’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(1), pp. 5–23. doi: 10.1007/s11747-015-0456-3.

85) Verma, V., Sharma, D. and Sheth, J. (2015) ‘Does relationship marketing matter in online retailing? A meta-analytic approach’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(2), pp. 206–217. doi: 10.1007/s11747-015-0429-6.

86) Weun, S., Beatty, S. E. and Jones, M. A. (2004) ‘The impact of service failure severity on service recovery evaluations andpost‐recovery relationships’, Journal of Services Marketing, 18(2), pp. 133–146. doi: 10.1108/08876040410528737.

87) Wijanto, S. H. (2015) Metode penelitian menggunakan Structural Equation Modeling dengan LISREL 9. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia.

88) Wirtz, J., & Lovelock, C. (2016) Service marketing: People, technology, strategy. 8th edn. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

89) Wirtz, J. and Mattila, A. S. (2004) ‘Consumer responses to compensation, speed of recovery and apology after a service failure’, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(2), pp. 150–166. doi: 10.1108/09564230410532484.

90) Xu, Y., Yap, S. F. C. and Hyde, K. F. (2016) ‘Who is talking, who is listening? Service recovery through online customer to-customer interactions’, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 34(3), pp. 421–443. doi: 10.1108/MIP-03-2015-0053.

91) Yeh, C.-W. (2015) ‘Linking customer verbal aggression and service sabotage’, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 25(6), pp. 877–896. doi: 10.1108/JSTP-07-2014-0146

VOlUME 04 ISSUE 06 JUNE 2021

Indexed In

Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar